Part A REGULATORY AND ETHICAL FRAMEWORK
Financial reporting framework
- Corporate governance: is the system by which companies are directed and controlled (Cadbury Report).
- Conceptual framework
The IASB’s Framework provides the backbone of the IASB‘s conceptual framework. IASs were based on the IASB Framework.
A conceptual framework is a statement of generally accepted theoretical principles which form the frame of reference for financial reporting. These theoretical principles provide the basis for the development of new accounting standards and for the evaluation of those already in existence.点击进入2015年ACCA考试题库》》
. Advantages and disadvantages of a conceptual framework
. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP)
A conceptual framework for financial reporting can be defined as an attempt to codify existing GAAP in order to reappraise current accounting standards and to produce new standards.
The IASB’s framework: consists of seven sections
- The objective of financial statements
- Underlying assumptions
- Qualitative characteristics of financial statements
- The elements of financial statements
- Recognition of the elements of financial statements
- Measurement of the elements of financial statements
- Concepts of capital and capital maintenance
Fundamental qualitative characteristics are:
(a)Relevance: predictive value or confirmatory value
(b)Faithful representation: information must be complete, neutral and free from material error (replacing ‘reliability)
Enhancing qualitative characteristics are:
(a)Comparability: achieved by consistency in use of the same accounting policies
(b)Verifiability: credibility, assurance that information faithfully represents the economic phenomena
(c)Timeliness: information is provided before it loses the capacity to influence decisions
(d)Understandability: for users who have a reasonable knowledge of business and economic activities and who are able to read a financial report; information should not be excluded on the grounds that it may be too complex/difficult for some users to understand. Enhanced when information is classified, characterized and presented clearly and concisely.